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Enrica L. Santarcangelo

Enrica L.
Last name
Italian, English

Enrica Laura Santarcangelo was born in Formicola (CE, Italy) in 1956.

She obtained her medical degree at the University of Pisa (1980), where she was a student at the Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e di Perfezionamento S. Anna (degree in 1981).

The she obtained her specialization degree in Clinical Psychology (1985) and her PhD degree in Antropology and Physiology (1989) at the University of Siena.

After some years of private practice as a clinical psychologist during which she participated in studies of signal analysis (Institute of Clinical Physiology of Pisa CNR) she began her experimental research on the mind-body axis at  the University of Pisa where she serves as an Associate Professor of Physiology.

Her research interests are the physiological correlates of hypnotizability and their behavioural relevance. In particular, her studies concern the hypnotizability-related differences in  autonomic control, sensory-motor integration and the functional equivalence between  imagery and perception. Her work allows to suggest a) a role of the cerebellum in a few sensorimotor aspects and of the imagery abilities of the individuals with high hypnotisability scores; b) lower cardiovascular vulnerability , c) lower responsiveness of the μ1 receptors, d) major role of interoception in these subjects.

Pisa, Italy
Member of ISH


Picerni E, Santarcangelo EL, Laricchiuta D, Cutuli D, Petrosini L, Spalletta G, Piras F.Cerebellar Structural Variations in Subjects with Different Hypnotizability.Cerebellum. 2018 Jul 18. doi: 10.1007/s12311-018-0965-y. [Epub ahead of print]

Varanini M, Balocchi R, Carli G, Paoletti G, Santarcangelo EL.HYPNOTIZABILITY AND PAIN MODULATION: A Body-Mind Perspective.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2018 Jul-Sep;66(3):265-281. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2018.1460561.

Campioni L, Banfi T, Santarcangelo EL.Hypnotizability influences the cortical representation of visually and kinaesthetically imagined head position.Brain Cogn. 2018 Jun;123:120-125. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.007. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Presciuttini S, Curcio M, Sciarrino R, Scatena F, Jensen MP, Santarcangelo EL.Polymorphism of Opioid Receptors μ1 in Highly Hypnotizable Subjects.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2018 Jan-Mar;66(1):106-118. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2018.1396128.

Jensen MP, Jamieson GA, Lutz A, Mazzoni G, McGeown WJ, Santarcangelo EL, Demertzi A, De Pascalis V, Bányai ÉI, Rominger C, Vuilleumier P, Faymonville ME, Terhune DB.New directions in hypnosis research: strategies for advancing the cognitive and clinical neuroscience of hypnosis.Neurosci Conscious. 2017;3(1). pii: nix004. doi: 10.1093/nc/nix004. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Diolaiuti F, Banfi T, Santarcangelo EL.Hypnotizability and the Peripersonal Space. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2017 Oct-Dec;65(4):466-478. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2017.1348868.

Fidanza F, Varanini M, Ciaramella A, Carli G, Santarcangelo EL. Pain modulation as a function of hypnotizability: Diffuse noxious inhibitory control induced by cold pressor test vs explicit suggestions of analgesia.Physiol Behav. 2017 Mar 15;171:135-141. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.01.013. Epub 2017 Jan 10.

Santarcangelo EL, Scattina E.Complementing the Latest APA Definition of Hypnosis: Sensory-Motor and Vascular Peculiarities Involved in Hypnotizability. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2016 Jul-Sep;64(3):318-30. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2016.1171093.

Solari G, Orsini P, Santarcangelo EL.Asymmetric Tactile Foot Stimulation: How Postural Studies May Suggest New Views of Hypnotizability.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2016 Jul-Sep;64(3):305-17. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2016.1171092.

Santarcangelo EL, Briscese L, Capitani S, Orsini P, Varanini M, Rossi B, Carboncini MC.Blink reflex in subjects with different hypnotizability: New findings for an old debate.Physiol Behav. 2016 Sep 1;163:288-293. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.05.021. Epub 2016 May 13.

Bocci T, Barloscio D, Parenti L, Sartucci F, Carli G, Santarcangelo EL.High Hypnotizability Impairs the Cerebellar Control of Pain.Cerebellum. 2017 Feb;16(1):55-61. doi: 10.1007/s12311-016-0764-2.

Padilla-Castaneda MA, Castellani E, Frisoli A, Bergamasco M, Santarcangelo EL.Hypnotizability and the position sense: proprioceptive localization of the hand.Arch Ital Biol. 2015 Mar;153(1):46-55. doi: 10.4449/aib.v153i1.3736.

Menzocchi M, Mecacci G, Zeppi A, Carli G, Santarcangelo EL. Hypnotizability and Performance on a Prism Adaptation Test. Cerebellum. 2015 Dec;14(6):699-706. doi: 10.1007/s12311-015-671y.

Madeo D, Castellani E, Mocenni C, Santarcangelo EL.Pain perception and EEG dynamics: does hypnotizability account for the efficacy of the suggestions of analgesia?Physiol Behav. 2015 Jun 1;145:57-63. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.03.040. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

Bocci T, Santarcangelo E, Vannini B, Torzini A, Carli G, Ferrucci R, Priori A, Valeriani M, Sartucci F. Cerebellar direct current stimulation modulates pain perception in humans. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2015;33(5):597-609. doi: 10.3233/RNN-140453.

Balocchi R, Varanini M, Paoletti G, Mecacci G, Santarcangelo EL Paradoxical response to an emotional task: trait characteristics and heart-rate dynamics.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2015;63(2):182-97. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2015.1002690.

Di Gruttola F, Orsini P, Carboncini MC, Rossi B, Santarcangelo EL.Revisiting the association between hypnotisability and blink rate.Exp Brain Res. 2014 Dec;232(12):3763-9. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-4073-z. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Santarcangelo EL.New views of hypnotizability.Front Behav Neurosci. 2014 Jun 24;8:224. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00224. eCollection 2014..

Chiarucci R, Madeo D, Loffredo MI, Castellani E, Santarcangelo EL, Mocenni C.Cross-evidence for hypnotic susceptibility through nonlinear measures on EEGs of non-hypnotized subjects.Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 8;4:5610. doi: 10.1038/srep05610.

Papalia E, Manzoni D, Santarcangelo EL.Stabilizing posture through imagery.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2014;62(3):292-309. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2014.901080.

Mecacci G, Menzocchi M, Zeppi A, Carli G, Santarcangelo EL.Body sway modulation by hypnotizability and gender during low and high demanding postural conditions.Arch Ital Biol. 2013 Sep;151(3):99-105. doi: 10.4449/aib.v151i3.1489.

Presciuttini S, Gialluisi A, Barbuti S, Curcio M, Scatena F, Carli G, Santarcangelo EL. Hypnotizability and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphysms in Italians. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014 Jan 6;7:929. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00929. eCollection 2014 Jan 6.

Santarcangelo EL, Paoletti G, Chiavacci I, Palombo C, Carli G, Varanini M.Cognitive modulation of psychophysical, respiratory and autonomic responses to cold pressor test.PLoS One. 2013 Oct 9;8(10):e75023. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075023. eCollection 2013.

Madeo D, Castellani E, Santarcangelo EL, Mocenni C.Hypnotic assessment based on the recurrence quantification analysis of EEG recorded in the ordinary state of consciousness.Brain Cogn. 2013 Nov;83(2):227-33. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2013.08.002. Epub 2013 Sep 19.

Santarcangelo EL, Varanini M, Paoletti G, Castellani E, Palombo C, Carli G.Pain-inducing imagery as a function of hypnotisability and of the activity of Gray's Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Systems.Neurosci Lett. 2013 Dec 17;557 Pt B:184-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.06.049. Epub 2013 Jul 12.

Santarcangelo EL, Paoletti G, Balocchi R, Carli G, Morizzo C, Palombo C, Varanini  M.Hypnotizability modulates the cardiovascular correlates of subjective relaxation. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2012;60(4):383-96. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2012.700609.

Castellani E, Carli G, Santarcangelo EL.Hypnotizability and haptics: visual recognition of unimanually explored 'nonmeaningful' objects.Exp Brain Res. 2012 Aug;221(2):137-42. doi: 10.1007/s00221-012-3154-0. Epub 2012 Jul 4.

Santarcangelo EL, Paoletti G, Balocchi R, Scattina E, Ghelarducci B, Varanini M.Watching neutral and threatening movies: subjective experience and autonomic responses in subjects with different hypnotizability levels.Int J Psychophysiol. 2012 Apr;84(1):59-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.01.010. Epub 2012 Jan 25.

Marinelli R, Bindi R, Marchi S, Castellani E, Carli G, Santarcangelo EL.Hypnotizability-related differences in written language.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2012;60(1):54-66. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2011.622196.

Scattina E, Huber A, Menzocchi M, Paoletti G, Carli G, Manzoni D, Santarcangelo EL. Postural effects of imagined leg pain as a function of hypnotizability.Exp Brain Res. 2012 Feb;216(3):341-8. doi: 10.1007/s00221-011-2935-1. Epub 2011 Nov 12.

Menzocchi M, Santarcangelo EL, Carli G, Berthoz A.Hypnotizability-dependent accuracy in the reproduction of haptically explored paths.Exp Brain Res. 2012 Jan;216(2):217-23. doi: 10.1007/s00221-011-2922-6. Epub 2011 Nov 6.

Castellani E, Carli G, Santarcangelo EL.Visual identification of haptically explored objects in high and low hypnotizable subjects.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2011 Apr;59(2):250-65. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2011.546269.

Santarcangelo EL, Scattina E, Carli G, Ghelarducci B, Orsini P, Manzoni D. Can imagery become reality?Exp Brain Res. 2010 Oct;206(3):329-35. doi: 10.1007/s00221-010-2412-2. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

Menzocchi M, Paoletti G, Carli G, Scattina E, Manzoni D, Santarcangelo EL. Hypnotizability-related effects of vestibular impairment on posture and locomotion.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Jul;58(3):329-44. doi: 10.1080/00207141003761155.

Paoletti G, Varanini M, Balocchi R, Morizzo C, Palombo C, Santarcangelo EL.Cardiovascular and respiratory correlates of deep nociceptive stimulation, suggestions for analgesia, pain imagery and cognitive load as a function of hypnotizability.Brain Res Bull. 2010 Apr 29;82(1-2):65-73. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2010.03.003. Epub 2010 Mar 12.

Menzocchi M, Paoletti G, Huber A, Carli G, Cavallaro FI, Manzoni D, Santarcangelo EL. Hypnotizability and sensorimotor integration: an Italian Space Agency project.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Jan;58(1):122-35. doi: 10.1080/00207140903316169.

Cavallaro FI, Cacace I, Del Testa M, Andre P, Carli G, De Pascalis V, Rocchi R, Santarcangelo EL. Hypnotizability-related EEG alpha and theta activities during visual and somesthetic imageries. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Feb 5;470(1):13-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.12.044. Epub 2009 Dec 23.

Caratelli E, Menzocchi M, Carli G, Fontani G, Santarcangelo E.Is high hypnotizability a trouble in balance control?Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Jan;108(1):201-6. doi: 10.1007/s00421-009-1280-6. Epub 2009 Nov 12.

Presciuttini S, Curcio M, Chillemi R, Barbuti S, Scatena F, Carli G, Ghelarducci B, Santarcangelo EL.Promoter polymorphisms of the NOS3 gene are associated with hypnotizability-dependent vascular response to nociceptive stimulation.Neurosci Lett. 2009 Dec 31;467(3):252-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.10.056. Epub 2009 Oct 22.

Santarcangelo EL, Scattina E, Carli G, Balocchi R, Macerata A, Manzoni D.Modulation of the postural effects of cognitive load by hypnotizability.Exp Brain Res. 2009 Apr;194(2):323-8. doi: 10.1007/s00221-009-1740-6. Epub 2009 Mar 1. Erratum in: Exp Brain Res. 2009 ;195(1):173-4.

Carli G, Suman AL, Biasi G, Marcolongo R, Santarcangelo EL.Paradoxical experience of hypnotic analgesia in low hypnotizable fibromyalgic patients.Arch Ital Biol. 2008 Jun;146(2):75-82.

Santarcangelo EL, Scattina E, Carli G, Macerata A, Manzoni D.Hypnotizability-dependent modulation of postural control: effects of alteration of the visual and leg proprioceptive inputs. Exp Brain Res. 2008 Nov;191(3):331-40. doi: 10.1007/s00221-008-1526-2. Epub 2008 Aug 16.

Carli G, Manzoni D, Santarcangelo EL Hypnotizability-related integration of perception and action. Cogn Neuropsychol. 2008 Oct-Dec;25(7-8):1065-76. doi: 10.1080/02643290801913712. Review.

Santarcangelo EL, Carli G, Migliorini S, Fontani G, Varanini M, Balocchi R. Heart-rate control during pain and suggestions of analgesia without deliberate induction of hypnosis. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2008 Jul;56(3):255-69. doi: 10.1080/00207140802039649.

Santarcangelo EL, Balocchi R, Scattina E, Manzoni D, Bruschini L, Ghelarducci B, Varanini M. Hypnotizability-dependent modulation of the changes in heart rate control induced by upright stance.Brain Res Bull. 2008 Mar 28;75(5):692-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2007.11.012.

Santarcangelo EL, Scattina E, Orsini P, Bruschini L, Ghelarducci B, Manzoni D. Effects of vestibular and neck proprioceptive stimulation on posture as a function of hypnotizability.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2008 Apr;56(2):170-84. doi: 10.1080/00207140701849510.

Balocchi R, Varanini M, Menicucci D, Santarcangelo EL, Migliorini S, Fontani G, Carli G. Heart rate variability in subjects with different hypnotic susceptibility receiving nociceptive stimulation and suggestions of analgesia.Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005;7:6996-9.

Sebastiani L, D'Alessandro L, Menicucci D, Ghelarducci B, Santarcangelo EL.Role of relaxation and specific suggestions in hypnotic emotional numbing.Int J Psychophysiol. 2007 Jan;63(1):125-32. Epub 2006 Dec 1.

Carli G, Cavallaro FI, Rendo CA, Santarcangelo EL. Imagery of different sensory modalities: hypnotizability and body sway. Exp Brain Res. 2007 May;179(2):147-54. Epub 2006 Nov 14.

Carli G, Rendo C, Sebastiani L, Santarcangelo EL.Suggestions of altered balance: Possible equivalence of imagery and perception.Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2006 Apr;54(2):206-23.

Gemignani A, Sebastiani L, Simoni A, Santarcangelo EL, Ghelarducci B.Hypnotic trait and specific phobia: EEG and autonomic output during phobic stimulation.Brain Res Bull. 2006 Mar 31;69(2):197-203. Epub 2005 Dec 27.

Jambrik Z, Santarcangelo EL, Rudisch T, Varga A, Forster T, Carli G. Modulation of pain-induced endothelial dysfunction by hypnotisability.Pain. 2005 Aug;116(3):181-6.

Sebastiani L, Simoni A, Gemignani A, Ghelarducci B, Santarcangelo EL Relaxation as a cognitive task.Arch Ital Biol. 2005 Feb;143(1):1-12.

Jambrik Z, Chunzeng L, Santarcangelo EL, Sebastiani L, Ghelarducci B, Picano E. Traditional acupuncture does not modulate the endothelial dysfunction induced by mental stress.Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2004 Oct;20(5):357-62.

Jambrik Z, Sebastiani L, Picano E, Ghelarducci B, Santarcangelo EL. Hypnotic modulation of flow-mediated endothelial response to mental stress. Int J Psychophysiol. 2005 Feb;55(2):221-7.

Santarcangelo EL, Cavallaro E, Mazzoleni S, Marano E, Ghelarducci B, Dario P, Micera S, Sebastiani L.Kinematic strategies for lowering of upper limbs during suggestions of heaviness: a real-simulator design.Exp Brain Res. 2005 Mar;162(1):35-45. Epub 2004 Oct 21.

Santarcangelo EL, Rendo C, Carpaneto J, Dario P, Micera S, Carli G.Does hypnotizability affect human upright stance?Arch Ital Biol. 2004 May;142(3):285-96.

Gemignani A, Tosetti M, Montanaro D, Biagi L, Ghelarducci B, Guazzelli M, Santarcangelo EL. .Sensory-motor cortex activity modulation by hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis during finger movement. Arch Ital Biol. 2004 Mar;142(2):77-85

Jambrik Z, Santarcangelo EL, Ghelarducci B, Picano E, Sebastiani L Does hypnotizability modulate the stress-related endothelial dysfunction?Brain Res Bull. 2004 Apr 30;63(3):213-6.

Sebastiani L, Simoni A, Gemignani A, Ghelarducci B, Santarcangelo EL.Autonomic and EEG correlates of emotional imagery in subjects with different hypnotic susceptibility.Brain Res Bull. 2003 Apr 15;60(1-2):151-60.

Santarcangelo EL, Busse K, Carli G.Frequency of occurrence of the F wave in distal flexor muscles as a function of hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis.Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2003 Mar;16(1):99-103.

Sebastiani L, Simoni A, Gemignani A, Ghelarducci B, Santarcangelo EL.Human hypnosis: autonomic and electroencephalographic correlates of a guided multimodal cognitive-emotional imagery.Neurosci Lett. 2003 Feb 20;338(1):41-4.

Gemignani A, Santarcangelo E, Sebastiani L, Marchese C, Mammoliti R, Simoni A, Ghelarducci B.Changes in autonomic and EEG patterns induced by hypnotic imagination of aversive stimuli in man.Brain Res Bull. 2000 Sep 1;53(1):105-11.

Danziger N, Fournier E, Bouhassira D, Michaud D, De Broucker T, Santarcangelo E, Carli G, Chertock L, Willer JC.Different strategies of modulation can be operative during hypnotic analgesia: a neurophysiological study.Pain. 1998 Mar;75(1):85-92.

Emdin M, Santarcangelo EL, Picano E, Raciti M, Pola S, Macerata A, Michelassi C, L'Abbate A. Hypnosis effect on RR interval and blood pressure variability.Clin Sci (Lond). 1996;91 Suppl:36.

Di Maio V, Santarcangelo EL, Busse K.Visual perception of area and hypnotic susceptibility. Percept Mot Skills. 1995 Dec;81(3 Pt 2):1315-27.

Santarcangelo EL, Busse K, Carli G.Changes in electromyographically recorded human monosynaptic reflex in relation to hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis.Neurosci Lett. 1989 Sep 25;104(1-2):157-60.

Rossi A, Rossi B, Santarcangelo E.Influences of neck vibration on lower limb extensor muscles in man.Arch Ital Biol. 1985 Nov;123(4):241-53.

Santarcangelo E, Pompeiano O, Stampacchia G.Effects of kainic acid lesions of lateral reticular nucleus on posture and reflex movements. Arch Ital Biol. 1981 Dec;119(4):324-40.

D'Ascanio P, Pompeiano O, Santarcangelo E, Stampacchia G.Relative contribution of mossy and climbing fiber pathways to the postural and motor deficits produced by neck deafferentation. Arch Ital Biol. 1981 Dec;119(4):314-23. 

Pompeiano O, Santarcangelo E, Stampacchia G, Srivastava UC.Changes in posture and reflex movements due to kainic acid lesions of the inferior olive.Arch Ital Biol. 1981 Dec;119(4):279-313.



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